Ending Child Marriage, Promoting Girls’ Education

Occasionally, I reproduce on this blog posts that I published elsewhere. As basic education is one of the areas of focus of  the Rotary Foundation, some of you may be interested in a study on the economic impacts of child marriage, including on girls’ education, that I recently completed at the World Bank. The study was funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Children’s Investment Fund Foundation, and the Global Partnership for Education, and done in partnership with the International Center for Research on Women. A post on the relationship between child marriage and girls’ education that appeared yesterday on the blog of the Global Partnership for Education is reproduced below together with links to related publications (picture below credited to the World Bank).

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Children in a temporary school in Goucheme Niger,  © Stephan Gladieu / World Bank

Post published with the Global Partnership for Education (GPE) on June 29, 2017:

Every day, 41,000 girls marry before they are 18 years old. That’s 15 million girls every year. What are the economic impacts and costs of child marriage, and how does the practice relate to girls’ educational attainment?

A new study on the economic impacts of child marriage by the World Bank and the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) suggests that the negative impacts of child marriage on a wide range of development outcomes are large. This is the case not only for child brides, but also for their children and for societies overall. The study benefited from support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Children’s Investment Fund Foundation, and the Global Partnership for Education.

Child marriage leads to population growth and entrenched poverty

Detailed analysis was carried for 15 countries, with extrapolations done for some of the impacts and costs of child marriage for more than 100 developing countries. Globally, between now and 2030, child marriage is expected to cost the equivalent of trillions of dollars to populations in the developing world.

The largest impacts in terms of economic costs are through fertility and population growth. Child marriage leads girls to have children earlier and more children over their lifetime. This in turns reduces the ability of households to meet their basic needs, and thereby contributes to poverty. Ending child marriage would generate large welfare benefits through a reduction in population growth, helping to usher in the demographic dividend.

Early marriage makes completing education almost impossible for girls

The relationship between child marriage and educational attainment for girls is also strong. In most developing countries, it is extremely difficult for girls to remain in school once they get married.

As a result, child marriage reduces the likelihood that girls will complete their secondary education. This emerges clearly from questions asked to parents in household surveys as to why their daughters dropped out of school. Marriage is often one of the main, if not the main reason, that adolescent girls drop out of school.

A similar conclusion is reached when modelling the relationship between child marriage and educational attainment econometrically. The effects are large. Every year that a girl marries early (i.e., before 18) is associated with a reduction in the likelihood of completing secondary school of typically four to 10 percentage points, depending on the country or region. This leads to lower earnings for child brides in adulthood since a lack of education prevents them from getting good jobs. In addition, child marriage also reduces education prospects for the children of child brides by curtailing their mother’s education.

The good news is that conversely, keeping girls in school is one of the best ways to delay marriage. This finding emerges from the literature on interventions that have proven successful in delaying the age at first marriage. It also emerges from the empirical estimations conducted for the study. The estimates suggest that across the 15 countries for which the empirical work was carried, each year of additional secondary education reduces the likelihood for girls of marrying as a child and of having a first child before the age of 18 by five to six percentage points on average.

Child marriage must end

The study provides a clear economic rationale for ending child marriage. Child marriage is not only a social issue with potentially dramatic consequences for child brides and their children. It is also an economic issue that affects the ability of countries to grow and reduce poverty. The study also suggests how ending child marriage can be done: by keeping girls in school.

What’s next? With support from GPE, two additional studies are being prepared by the World Bank team. The first study will estimate the benefits from investments in girls’ education using an approach similar to that used for the estimation of the economic costs of child marriage.

The second study will look more broadly at the role that human capital plays in the changing Wealth of Nations. Preliminary findings suggest that human capital is the largest component of the Wealth of Nations, ahead of produced and natural capital.

Together, it is hoped that these three studies on (1) the economic impacts of child marriage, (2) the benefits of investments in girls’ education, and (3) human capital and the Wealth of Nations will help advocate for increased investments in education.

For more information:

Global Report

Project brief on educational attainment

Infographic

All publications on the costs of child marriage

Using our Expertise and Networks to Provide Training for Local Nonprofits

A great way for Rotary clubs to serve their community is to rely on their members’ expertise and networks to provide training for local nonprofits in areas where they need support. As part of my club’s pro bono initiative, we organized in February 2017 two half day training events for local nonprofits on (1) monitoring and evaluation and (2) communications. This post explains what we did, and why it worked.

  

In September 2016, we applied to the Capitol Hill Community Foundation for a grant to help us organize training events for local nonprofits. We received the grant in November and organized the training events in February. The events focused on 1) essentials of monitoring, evaluation, and cost-benefit analysis for nonprofits; and 2) essentials of communications, from websites to social media and power point presentations.  The training workshops were held at the main community center for our neighborhood in Washington, DC. The focus on monitoring, evaluation, and cost-benefit analysis as well as on communications stemmed from the fact that when interacting with local nonprofits, there appeared to be great demand for support in those areas.

In order to organize the training events, we relied on the expertise of members of our club as well as friends and colleagues from organizations based in Washington, DC. Instructors for the two training workshops included staff from the Center for Nonprofit Advancement, the Communication Center, Tanzen, the Urban Alliance, and the World Bank.  In addition, between the events (one workshop in the morning and the other the same day during the afternoon), we provided a lunch to participants of both workshops with a keynote address from the CEO of Grameen Foundation, a well-known organization providing micro-credit globally.

In order to promote the training events, we designed posters/fliers and shared them widely to potential participants using a variety of networks. As an example, we contacted local foundations so that they could share the information with their grantees. Registration was brisk, and we had to close registrations when we reached 150 participants. On the day itself, about 90 people attended, which was good for us given that our room had a capacity of 90. Note that when training events are free some people who register may not come – and we had factored this in. We also had competition from a gorgeous and sunny day. Many participants attended for the whole day, but some came for just one of the two training events.

Because we had great speakers who knew their subject matter well and were engaging as well as practical in their presentations, evaluations of the two events by participants were very encouraging. As shown in the table below, on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree), participants on average rated all dimensions of the training highly. This initiative overall was a great success for our club in terms of providing a valuable service to the community, and gaining in visibility as well. I encourage you to consider organizing similar events in your community.

Evaluation of the two training events by participants – scale from 1 to 5

M&E Comms
The training was well organized. 4.71 4.79
The topics covered were relevant. 4.65 4.68
Participation/interaction were encouraged. 4.44 4.58
The content was easy to follow. 4.50 4.89
The trainers were knowledgeable about the topics. 4.79 4.89
The trainers were well prepared. 4.74 4.89
The time allotted was sufficient for what was covered. 4.65 4.79
The lunch as well as the facilities were adequate. 4.56 4.68
This training experience will be useful to me. 4.68 4.84
I will come again if another training is organized. 4.62 4.79

I will recommend this type of training to others.

4.68 4.84

 

Free ebook 2 – Partner, Innovate, Evaluate: Increasing Rotary’s Impact

The second ebook in the Rotarian Economist Short Books Series has been published. Partnerships, innovation, and evaluation can increase the quality, scope, and reach of Rotary’s service work in communities. The book suggests with case studies how this can be done. All books in the series are free and available here in multiple formats.  Please share this link widely with others for them to be able to benefit from this resource. And if you like the books in the series, please consider writing a quick review at Smashwords!

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From websites to social media and power point presentations: Free training on communications on February 24, 2017 in Washington, DC

In my previous blog, I mentioned the first of two training events I am organizing in Washington, DC, on February 24, 2017 with my Rotary club. So here is the info for the second event on communications for nonprofits and others interested in the topic. We again have great instructors. The topics to be covered include communications, websites, social media, and even how to do great power point presentations. Previous background on communications is not required. Students (preferably at the graduate level) are also welcome.

The CEO of Grameen Foundation will be our keynote speaker for lunch, so participants to either event (M&E in the morning or communications in the afternoon) are welcome to stay for lunch. The training on communications will take place from 2 PM to 5:30 PM and the lunch will be from 12:30 PM to 2 PM). This is a free event thanks to support from the Capitol Hill Community Foundation. The event will be held at the Hill Center in Washington, DC.

Please don’t hesitate to share this announcement with others. And if you live in the Greater DC area and would like to participate in this event, please register at the following link (space is limited):

https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/F9D6KK5

hill-center-comms

Which Is Better? Creating Your Own Event or Participating in an Existing Event?

As part of our new strategic plan, our club is stepping up efforts to improve our public image and our presence in the community, in part through social and traditional media, but also through the organization of public events and participation in existing events. Which is better? Creating our own event, or participating in events that already exist in your community?

As expected, the answer is “it depends”. Both types of events are an option, and if you can do both, all the better for your club. Let me illustrate this with two events for our club in the past week: our participation in the Barracks Row Festival (an existing event) on September 24, and our seminar on education for peace and social change at the World Bank (an event we created) on September 20.

The Barracks Row Festival is an annual family-oriented community event for Capitol Hill, the neighborhood in which our club is located in Washington, DC. Some 140 organizations and vendors have stands. Depending on weather, up to 10,000 people pass through the street where the event is located from 11 AM to 5 PM. For the second year in a row, we participated. This year our stand featured a bean bag game (as shown in the picture where you can see that our game has the Rotary emblem!)  Children and adults who succeeded in throwing a bag in the hole got a cute slap bracelet. In practice, we (of course) gave the slap bracelet to all the children who wanted it. Thanks to one of our members and her colleagues, we also had face painting for children for a few hours. This was as expected an even better attraction for children than the bean bag game.

barracks

A few hundred people came by our stand, on a few occasions because they were interested in Rotary, but mostly because their children wanted to play or get their face painted. We did make a number of useful contacts, but more importantly we got our name out there in a positive way.  We contributed to an important event in our community, which we should do independently of any potential benefit for our club.

Our second event this past week was very different. We organized a seminar at the World Bank on education, peace, and social change with three very good speakers: one from our public school system and two from great local nonprofits (Street Law and One World Education). A Rotary Peace Fellow from George Mason University served as discussant, and one of my colleagues at the World Bank served as chair.

I will write more about the seminar when I will have the video to share, but for this post, in terms of comparing participation in an existing event with organizing a new event, the lessons are twofold. First, the seminar was well attended (with about 55 participants), but it reached fewer people than our stand at the Barracks Row Festival. On the other hand the people we reached included professionals that we are aiming to work with through our Capitol Hill pro bono initiative whereby we provide strategic advise to local nonprofits and agencies on the challenges they face. The event not only contributed to the broader discussion on education and peace, but it also contributed to our credibility as a partner. The fact that we co-organized the event with the World Bank. a respected organization in DC, did not hurt.

So, the message that I wanted to convey with these two examples of recent events for our club is simple: if you can, you should consider multiple types of events to make your club better known. Some of these events could be created from scratch, as we did for the seminar at the World Bank, while others could entail participation in existing community events with broader reach. Both types of events are great opportunities to make your club better known and contribute to the community.

Education, Peace, and Social Change Event at the World Bank

For readers of this blog who are based in the greater Washington, DC, area, please take note of an event I am organizing at the World Bank. On September 20, 2016 at 4 PM (until 5:30 PM followed by a light reception), we will have a great panel discussion on education for peace and social change featuring innovative programs in the DC area. The event is co-sponsored by my Rotary club and organized ahead of International Peace Day. Details are provided below. Feel free to share this information with others as all are welcome, but please do register at the following link if you intend to come but are not a World Bank staff (space is limited).
 
Education, Peace, and Social Change: Innovations in the District of Columbia

Panel on September 20, 2016 at 4:00 PM, Room J 1-050 (Address: 701 18th St NW, Washington, DC 20006)

How can secondary education be safe for students while also promoting peace and social change? This question will be discussed by a panel featuring innovative programs in Washington, DC. These programs provide useful insights not only for the United States but also for developing countries. Case studies will be presented about work in this area by District of Columbia Public Schools (in terms of improving safety in schools and promoting restorative justice), Street Law (in terms of empowering young people with legal and civic knowledge, skills, and confidence to bring about positive change for themselves and others) and One World Education (in terms of improving the research and writing skills of students and enabling them to write about issues that they deeply care about). The panel is organized for International Peace Day (on September 21) by the World Bank’s Education Global Practice together with the Global Partnership for Education, the World Bank Community Outreach, and the Rotary Club of Capitol Hill. A light reception will follow the event.

Introduction: Quentin Wodon, Lead Economist, World Bank

Chair: Joel Reyes, Senior Education Specialist, World Bank

Speakers:

David Jenkins, Manager of Behavior and Student Supports, DC Public Schools

Lee Arbetman, Executive Director, Street Law

Eric Goldstein, Chief Executive Officer, One World Education

Discussant: 

Arthur Romano, Assistant Professor of Conflict Analysis and Resolution, George Mason University

Polio Immunization in Yemen

A few months ago, I shared news through this blog about the approval of a new World Bank project for routine immunizations in Pakistan which included a component on polio.  Rotarian friends mentioned to me at the time that my blog post did not mention Rotary. The reason was that the project included partnerships with organizations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, but not Rotary International. This was because the project did not focus solely on polio even though it included a component about polio, and Rotary (legitimately) targets its limited financial resources to projects focusing on polio only.  Beyond Pakistan, quite a bit is being done in developing countries on polio through routine immunizations. As Rotarians we should be aware of this.

Yemen 2016-Jul-6-feature-cover
Cover photo: Ashwak Althabibi holding her eight-month-old son Najran, who was vaccinated as part of the campaign. Photo credit: UNICEF.

Yesterday I came across a story about another World Bank project that included a polio component in Yemen.  As this may be of interest to some Rotarians, let me share this hopeful story below, which includes links to the project appraisal document (for those who like details, this document explains how the project works). A key message from the story is that by partnering with UNICEF and WHO, the World Bank was able to maintain disbursements for this project despite the conflict situation in the country.  As a result, the project has provided critical support for the national polio campaign which has managed to vaccinate 1.5 million Yemeni children despite the conflict.

 

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“This is so critical to us. We cannot afford to lose another child!” With these words, Ashwak Althabibi, a 36-year-old mother of six children, shared the story of losing her daughter Nora last year.

“We couldn’t get her to the hospital soon enough, and by the time we found a transportation and reached the hospital, Nora was gone,” Althabibi added with tearful eyes. She composed herself to say “I just want to thank the vaccination team for their perseverance. They come on a regular basis and vaccinate all my children. It’s a great consolation for us to feel such care.”

“No transportation can get there and it is the team’s responsibility to reach this population and to make sure all their children get vaccinated during this hard time,” commented Hana Ali Nagi, a 19-year-old health volunteer in the vaccination campaign.

Since the start of the current conflict, Yemen suffered massive damage to infrastructure, such as hospitals and clinics, and the interruption of medical supplies. Many foreign health personnel have left, and even the most basic needs for a healthy existence—access to water, sanitation, and food—have become, for most Yemenis, a daunting, daily task.

Gone too are the days when the victims of war were mostly soldiers: the Yemeni conflict has been unfair to women and children, which means the most vulnerable Yemenis are bearing the brunt of the conflict.

Thousands of Yemeni children have been killed and injured in the war, and hundreds of thousands put at more risk of death from disease or malnutrition. The UN’s Children’s Fund (UNICEF) estimates that 320,000 children now face severe malnutrition, while 2.2 million need humanitarian aid urgently to prevent their nutritional status from deteriorating.

The last two decades have been a prolonged period of political instability and economic fragility in Yemen, a country with both limited natural resources and an underdeveloped institutional capacity for project implementation.

But one lesson from previous World Bank Group experience in the health sector is that government ownership, simple project design, and donor coordination should come top of the list of the ways to make things work.

Yemen’s Health and Population Project (HPP) has a simple, evidence-based outreach delivery model for health services in coordination with UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO), in order to procure some of the essential medications and medical supplies needed for the outreach campaigns.

This has enabled the Bank to continue its support to the project, when the war escalated and the Bank’s whole portfolio in Yemen was suspended, through channeling grants from the International Development Association (IDA – the World Bank’s fund for the world’s poorest countries) directly to UNICEF and WHO to deliver vaccinations and basic health services such as nutrition and reproductive health to children and women, respectively.

Since the project’s activities resumed in January 2016, around 1.5 million Yemeni children under five years old were reached by the national polio campaigns supported by the project, which represents about 30 percent of the whole target population nationwide.

“Conflict can have devastating, multi-generational impacts, but by leveraging our partnerships in Yemen we are able to continue investing in children’s health, which is a vital investment in the country’s future,” said Asad Alam, World Bank country director for Egypt, Yemen and Djibouti.

The outreach model aims to reach children in the places where they are living, often in remote areas that are hard to get to. It will continue to operate like this until the foundations of the country’s public health system are back in place. Simple, ready-to-go interventions are what Yemenis want to see as a practical response to their desperate need for basic health care. Health workers use different ways to deliver those services in such remote areas where camels, donkeys, or mountain climbing are usual means of transportation.

More outreach rounds for basic health services are planned, although the security situation prevents access to children in some areas. But overall, because of the problems of damaged infrastructure, fuel shortages, displacement and increased poverty, the simple outreach model of delivering basic health services is best suited to Yemen’s present situation. A door-to-door health round gives children the chance of getting vaccinated at home, with health professionals and volunteers spreading out across the country, mobilizing communities and vaccinating children.

Hopefully, soon peace will mark a new chapter, both in rebuilding Yemen and its health system, and improving the lives of all Yemenis and particularly its future, the children.

Thanks go to UNICEF for sharing real stories and photos from the field.

This story is reproduced from the World Bank website.