Financing Polio Eradication and Development in Nigeria’s North-East

New cases of polio have emerged in Nigeria. Ahead of World Polio Day, readers of this blog should know that Rotary and other international organizations are stepping up to the plate. In September 2016, Rotary committed an additional $35 million to end polio, bringing its contribution to $105 million in 2016. Two months earlier, the World Bank approved in June 2016 $575 million in additional IDA financing for Nigeria to scale up support for the North-East of the country. This includes $125 million for polio eradication over three years (2017-2019).

polio-nigeria

The World Bank program document for the additional polio financing notes that multiple obstacles remain to eradicating polio in Nigeria due to a lack of accessibility of some communities in the Northern States. This has led to special measures being introduced, including “(a) ‘hit and run’ interventions where vaccinators use any opportunity to go to difficult areas with the military and leave as soon as all children have been reached; (b)‘fire-walling’ that is, ensuring immunity in areas surrounding inaccessible villages; (c) using local people as vaccinators who can operate without drawing attention; (d) including IPV (Inactivated Polio Vaccine) in routine immunizations activities; (e) having transit bus-stop and market vaccination teams; and (f) ensuring that all internally displaced people residing in camps are covered.”

Despite these efforts, immunization coverage for polio and other vaccines in the North-East still lags far behind the national average. The $125 million additional financing for polio has two components.

  • The first component provides $60 million for  Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) and other operational requirements of polio eradication activities. UNICEF will receive $50 million to procure OPV. The additional US$10 million will be used by UNICEF or WHO for a range of activities where funding gaps may be identified, including activities for Immunization Plus Days.
  • The second component ($65 million) will help finance routine immunization. The inclusion of a component on routine immunization stems from the fact that it has been shown to be essential for interrupting the transmission of wild polio and thereby completing polio eradication, while also being a critical aspect of improving child and maternal health.

The program document for the additional polio financing is available here.

The difficulties in eradicating polio in the North-East are related in part to insecurity and a broader lack of services and development opportunities. The Boko Haram insurgency has deeply affected the states of Borno, Yobe, Adamawa, Taraba, Bauchi and Gombe, with negative impacts on an estimated 15 million people.

As per the press release for the additional financing package for the North-East, the other components of the package include:

  • $75 million for the Nigeria Community and Social Development Project which provides immediate basic social infrastructure and psychosocial support to communities most affected by displacement;
  • $100 million for the Youth Employment and Social Support Operation to provide youth, women and the unemployed (especially internally displaced persons, returnees and persons with disabilities resulting from the crisis) with labor-intensive work and skills development opportunities. Cash transfers will also be provided to displaced families and individuals as they return voluntarily and safely to and settle in their old or new communities.
  • $50 million for the Third Fadama Development Project that  addresses the emergency needs of farmers by improving access to irrigation and drainage services, delivery of agricultural inputs, and contributing to the restoration of livelihoods in conflict-affected households with a focus on women and youth.
  • $100 million for the State Education Program Investment Project that supports the return to teaching and learning through financial incentives for teachers who have completed psycho-social training, and provide grants to schools to address their needs as identified by school-based management committees.
  • $125 million for the National State Health Investment Project (plus $20 million from the Global Financing Facility) that will help to reestablish health services with a focus on maternal, newborn and child health, nutrition, psycho-social support and mental health. In communities in which health facilities have been destroyed, mobile clinics will be deployed to provide care.

As Rachid Benmessaoud, the World Bank Country Director for Nigeria explained it,  “The needs are staggering. Millions of people have lost their livelihoods, schools and health facilities have been destroyed, and the psychosocial impact of the crisis must also be addressed. To help create economic opportunities for the most vulnerable, we have identified a set of initiatives that will have a quick and tangible impact on the population in four priority areas: agriculture, education, health and social protection.

The World Bank press release on which this blog post is based is available here together with links to other related resources.

Open Access World Bank Publications on Peace, Conflict, and Violence (Resources Series No. 2)

Conflict and violence have dramatic negative consequences for development and the ability of populations to emerge from poverty. At least 1.5 billion people live in countries affected by repeated cycles of political and/or criminal violence. One fifth of the extreme poor worldwide live today in fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCS), but this proportion could double by 2030 if current trends continue.

Peace conference

Low-income FCS countries have not been able to achieve the targets set forth in the Millennium Development Goals in part because of conflict and violence. In recognition of the impact of conflict and violence on development, the Sustainable Development Goals recently approved by the international community include a goal on promoting peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, providing access to justice for all, and building effective, accountable and inclusive institutions.

Rotary’s Peace Conference

How do conflict and violence affect development, and what can be done to reduce the risks of conflict and violence and instead promote peace? These are some of the questions that will be discussed at the Rotary Presidential Conference on Peace and Conflict Prevention/Resolution or World Peace Conference to be held on January 15-16, 2016 in Ontario, California. The conference is one of five flagship conferences organized by Rotary International in 2015-16. The other conferences will be on disease prevention and treatment in Cannes, economic development in Cape Town, literacy and WASH (water, sanitation, hygiene) in schools in Kolkata, and WASH in schools in Manila.

The World Peace Conference will include more than 80 panel and facilitated sessions as well as plenary sessions. It is expected to attract a couple of thousand participants. You are encouraged to attend, as it promises to be a great experience!

Apart from Rotary International President K. R. Ravindran and Rotary Foundation Chair Ray Klinginsmith, keynote speakers will include Sal Khan (founder and CEO of Khan Academy), Sharon Stone (Actress), Father Greg Boyle (Executive Director of Homeboy Industries), Carrie Hessler-Radelet (Director of the Peace Corps), Dr. Bernd Wollschläger (author of A German Life: Against All Odds Change is Possible), Barbara Winton (the daughter of Sir Nicholas Winton who organized the rescue of Jewish children from Czechoslovakia in 1939), Steve Killelea (Founder of the Institute for Economics and Peace), and Mary Peters (United States Ambassador).

Open Access Resources

Rotary is of course not the only organization emphasizing peace in its service and development work. Issues related to peace, fragility, conflict, and violence have been at the core of a substantial part of the work of development organizations for many years. This means that the World Bank as well as other organizations have substantial knowledge to share with researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in these areas.

As a contribution to Rotary’s World Peace Conference, this blog is providing a guide to selected open access publications from the World Bank that could help conference participants think about conflict, violence, and development. The publications listed are made available through the World Bank’s Open Knowledge Repository. The focus on resources provided by the World Bank is driven by practicality as including other organizations would yield a rather unwieldy list of available resources. At the same time, focusing on the World Bank has the advantage of being able to go global with a single organization.  In order to keep the guide manageable, the focus is on open access books as opposed to other publications such as working papers, articles, and briefs.

Selected Recent Books and Reports

You can access 45 selected World Bank books and reports published since 2010 on conflict, violence, and adversity either by downloading the guide prepared for conference participants, or by going to the Promoting peace page of this blog. The selection of the books and reports was based on the topics to be considered at Rotary’s Peace Conference. The scope of the conference is broad, with 13 parallel tracks apart from plenary sessions. The 13 tracks of the conference have been “aggregated” into 9 topics for listing World Bank publications: (1) Conflict, Development, and Trade; (2) Fighting Crime, Violence, and Terrorism; (3) Proving Services in Contexts of Adversity; (4) Middle East Region; (5) Equity and Discrimination; (6) Social Norms and Violence Against Women; (7) Jobs and Employment; (8) Education and Health, Including Role of Faith-based Providers; and finally (9) Governance and Institutions.

The hope is that the publications selected, and more generally the World Bank’s open access knowledge resources, will be useful to conference participants and others dealing directly or indirectly with issues of conflict, violence, and adversity when implementing projects in developing and developed countries alike. Please don’t hesitate to let me know if these resources are useful, or not so much so!