Ending Child Marriage, Promoting Girls’ Education

Occasionally, I reproduce on this blog posts that I published elsewhere. As basic education is one of the areas of focus of  the Rotary Foundation, some of you may be interested in a study on the economic impacts of child marriage, including on girls’ education, that I recently completed at the World Bank. The study was funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Children’s Investment Fund Foundation, and the Global Partnership for Education, and done in partnership with the International Center for Research on Women. A post on the relationship between child marriage and girls’ education that appeared yesterday on the blog of the Global Partnership for Education is reproduced below together with links to related publications (picture below credited to the World Bank).

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Children in a temporary school in Goucheme Niger,  © Stephan Gladieu / World Bank

Post published with the Global Partnership for Education (GPE) on June 29, 2017:

Every day, 41,000 girls marry before they are 18 years old. That’s 15 million girls every year. What are the economic impacts and costs of child marriage, and how does the practice relate to girls’ educational attainment?

A new study on the economic impacts of child marriage by the World Bank and the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) suggests that the negative impacts of child marriage on a wide range of development outcomes are large. This is the case not only for child brides, but also for their children and for societies overall. The study benefited from support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Children’s Investment Fund Foundation, and the Global Partnership for Education.

Child marriage leads to population growth and entrenched poverty

Detailed analysis was carried for 15 countries, with extrapolations done for some of the impacts and costs of child marriage for more than 100 developing countries. Globally, between now and 2030, child marriage is expected to cost the equivalent of trillions of dollars to populations in the developing world.

The largest impacts in terms of economic costs are through fertility and population growth. Child marriage leads girls to have children earlier and more children over their lifetime. This in turns reduces the ability of households to meet their basic needs, and thereby contributes to poverty. Ending child marriage would generate large welfare benefits through a reduction in population growth, helping to usher in the demographic dividend.

Early marriage makes completing education almost impossible for girls

The relationship between child marriage and educational attainment for girls is also strong. In most developing countries, it is extremely difficult for girls to remain in school once they get married.

As a result, child marriage reduces the likelihood that girls will complete their secondary education. This emerges clearly from questions asked to parents in household surveys as to why their daughters dropped out of school. Marriage is often one of the main, if not the main reason, that adolescent girls drop out of school.

A similar conclusion is reached when modelling the relationship between child marriage and educational attainment econometrically. The effects are large. Every year that a girl marries early (i.e., before 18) is associated with a reduction in the likelihood of completing secondary school of typically four to 10 percentage points, depending on the country or region. This leads to lower earnings for child brides in adulthood since a lack of education prevents them from getting good jobs. In addition, child marriage also reduces education prospects for the children of child brides by curtailing their mother’s education.

The good news is that conversely, keeping girls in school is one of the best ways to delay marriage. This finding emerges from the literature on interventions that have proven successful in delaying the age at first marriage. It also emerges from the empirical estimations conducted for the study. The estimates suggest that across the 15 countries for which the empirical work was carried, each year of additional secondary education reduces the likelihood for girls of marrying as a child and of having a first child before the age of 18 by five to six percentage points on average.

Child marriage must end

The study provides a clear economic rationale for ending child marriage. Child marriage is not only a social issue with potentially dramatic consequences for child brides and their children. It is also an economic issue that affects the ability of countries to grow and reduce poverty. The study also suggests how ending child marriage can be done: by keeping girls in school.

What’s next? With support from GPE, two additional studies are being prepared by the World Bank team. The first study will estimate the benefits from investments in girls’ education using an approach similar to that used for the estimation of the economic costs of child marriage.

The second study will look more broadly at the role that human capital plays in the changing Wealth of Nations. Preliminary findings suggest that human capital is the largest component of the Wealth of Nations, ahead of produced and natural capital.

Together, it is hoped that these three studies on (1) the economic impacts of child marriage, (2) the benefits of investments in girls’ education, and (3) human capital and the Wealth of Nations will help advocate for increased investments in education.

For more information:

Global Report

Project brief on educational attainment

Infographic

All publications on the costs of child marriage

Free ebooks 4 and 5 – Rotary foundations and grants

Did you know that apart from the Rotary Foundation of Rotary International, there are close to 4,000 local Rotary foundations in the United States alone? Two new free ebooks on Rotary foundations and grants are now available in the Rotarian Economist Short Books series.  The first book provides an introduction to Rotary foundations and grants for applicants as well as Rotarians. The second book provides a directory of Rotary foundations in the United States by state and by city within each state. To download your free copy, please go here.

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Free ebook 3: What Does Service Mean in Rotary? Simple Stories of Inspiring Rotarians

The third free ebook in the Rotarian Economist Short Books series has been released. Rotary’s motto is “Service above Self.” What does this mean in practice? The book answers this question by providing examples of the work that Rotarians do. The book also explains Rotary’s “avenues of service.” The hope is that through simple stories of Rotarians at work, readers – including new Rotarians – will better understand what service in Rotary is about, and be inspired for their own volunteer work. To download your free copy, please go here.

Technical note: due to the Smashwords website features, I am listed as first author, but the correct order of the authors is the order provided in the downloadable files.

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Free ebook 2 – Partner, Innovate, Evaluate: Increasing Rotary’s Impact

The second ebook in the Rotarian Economist Short Books Series has been published. Partnerships, innovation, and evaluation can increase the quality, scope, and reach of Rotary’s service work in communities. The book suggests with case studies how this can be done. All books in the series are free and available here in multiple formats.  Please share this link widely with others for them to be able to benefit from this resource. And if you like the books in the series, please consider writing a quick review at Smashwords!

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Free Half-Day Training in DC on Monitoring, Evaluation, and Cost-Benefit Analysis on February 24

Vocational training has long been a core activity of Rotary. On February 24, 2017, I am organizing in Washington, DC, with my Rotary club a half day training on monitoring, evaluation, and cost-benefit analysis for nonprofit staff/volunteers and others interested in these topics. We will have leading experts in the field as instructors. The emphasis will be on case studies. Previous background on monitoring, evaluation, and cost-benefit analysis is not required. Students (preferably at the graduate level) are welcome.

The CEO of Grameen Foundation will be our keynote speaker for lunch. The event will take place from 9 AM to 2 PM (lunch from 12:30 PM to 2 PM). This is a free event thanks to support from the Capitol Hill Community Foundation. I will announce soon a separate training on communications for nonprofits and others interested (this will also be on February 24, but in the afternoon). Please don’t hesitate to share this announcement with others.

If you live in the Greater DC area and would like to participate in these events, please register at the following link (space is limited):

https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/F9D6KK5

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Rotary International’s New Website and its Story on Literacy

Rotary International launched a much anticipated new website this month. The Rotary Leader January newsletter mentions five reasons to check out the new site, but I must admit that my main reason to look at it right away was the story on literacy because I knew it would feature a great Nepal project.

NTTI

The literacy story talks about the importance of training teachers. It features several great projects, but the one I know well is implemented by NTTI (Nepal Teacher Training Innovations) and PHASE, two great NGOs my club is working with together with the Rotary Club of Kathmandu Mid-Town. The aim of the project, which will hopefully soon benefit from a global grant, is to improve instructions in Nepal’s primary schools.

Below is a brief excerpt of the story as it relates to NTTI. The story is featured on the “supporting education” section of the new website:

“Before taking part in the NTTI program, one teacher relied heavily on memorization, having her students copy words off the blackboard. After training, the teacher made her lesson on animate and inanimate objects more interactive, says Ashley Hager, NTTI’s director. The teacher asked children to point to objects and describe how they were different. She then listed the differences on the board and paired students up to discuss them. As a final exercise, the class went outside to find examples in nature.

One student approached the teacher with a live ant in her hand and inquired, “This is an animate object, yes?” The teacher agreed. The child then squashed the ant and asked, “Is it still an animate object now?” Caught by surprise, the teacher asked the rest of the students what they thought, and a lively conversation followed. 

Other teachers agree that the training taught them the value of interactive teaching. “It’s transformed my way of teaching and given me brilliant ideas to employ the best teaching practices I have learned,” says Goma Khada, who teaches fourth grade at Shrijana Higher Secondary School in Thumpakhar.”

The literacy story is available at the following link (https://www.rotary.org/en/teaching-teachers-key-literacy). If you would like to contribute to the global grant, let me know!

This story is just one of many great stories on the new website. Stories are provided for each area of focus of the Rotary Foundation. Other stories focus on what it means to be a Rotarian or other topics of interest to clubs. So please check the new website out!

And just for the sake of completeness, let me end by mentioning that the five reasons highlighted in the Rotary Leader January newsletter to visit the new website are (1) Better organization; (2) Improved readability; (3) Compelling storytelling (what I just focused on); (4) Prominent calls to action; and (5) Enhanced metrics.

 

Free ebook series: Let me know your ideas!

Next week, as I take time off from work, I will start working on a series of free ebooks for Rotarians and others interested in service work. The ebooks will be released in coming months. If you have ideas or know of projects that I should cover in this new series, please let me know by commenting on this post or sending me an email.

Strengthening Rotary

A first set of ebooks will be about Rotary and ways to strengthen the organization. Let me give three examples.

First, I will provide estimates of the footprint of Rotary, starting with data from the United States. For example, Rotarians know about the Rotary Foundation of Rotary International. But they often do not know about the richness of the activities implemented by club foundations and how much Rotary as a whole contributes to “serving humanity”, the theme for this Rotary year. I will provide estimates of our total contribution – which is large. My hope is that these estimates can then be used to better tell our story.

Second, I will advocate for the need to invest more in partnerships, innovation, and evaluation in Rotary. I will argue for such investments, and share examples of great projects that have achieved impact in each of the areas of focus of the Rotary Foundation as well as polio through partnerships, innovation, and evaluation.

Third, I will share experiences of successful Rotary clubs, starting with my own and how we succeeded in doubling our membership in six months since July thanks in part to changes adopted at the beginning of the Rotary year. I will share lessons learned that I hope will be useful to other clubs.

Project Design in Areas of Focus

In addition, ahead of the Atlanta Rotary International convention, I will prepare a series of short ebooks providing basic facts as well as good practice advise and great project stories about our areas of focus for service work (fighting disease, providing clean water, saving mothers and children, supporting education, growing local economies, and promoting peace).

The hope is that these ebooks will help Rotary clubs and districts as well as other organizations choose and prepare great projects by building on the experience accumulated not only by Rotary (including Rotarian Action Groups) but also by other organizations.

Let Me Know Your Ideas

If you know of specific projects that I should cover in this new series of free ebooks, or more broadly of successful initiatives taken by clubs or districts that I should be aware of, please don’t hesitate to let me know.

You can do so by sharing a comment on this post or by contacting me by email if you prefer (through the Contact Me page of this blog).

Thanks!

Financing Polio Eradication and Development in Nigeria’s North-East

New cases of polio have emerged in Nigeria. Ahead of World Polio Day, readers of this blog should know that Rotary and other international organizations are stepping up to the plate. In September 2016, Rotary committed an additional $35 million to end polio, bringing its contribution to $105 million in 2016. Two months earlier, the World Bank approved in June 2016 $575 million in additional IDA financing for Nigeria to scale up support for the North-East of the country. This includes $125 million for polio eradication over three years (2017-2019).

polio-nigeria

The World Bank program document for the additional polio financing notes that multiple obstacles remain to eradicating polio in Nigeria due to a lack of accessibility of some communities in the Northern States. This has led to special measures being introduced, including “(a) ‘hit and run’ interventions where vaccinators use any opportunity to go to difficult areas with the military and leave as soon as all children have been reached; (b)‘fire-walling’ that is, ensuring immunity in areas surrounding inaccessible villages; (c) using local people as vaccinators who can operate without drawing attention; (d) including IPV (Inactivated Polio Vaccine) in routine immunizations activities; (e) having transit bus-stop and market vaccination teams; and (f) ensuring that all internally displaced people residing in camps are covered.”

Despite these efforts, immunization coverage for polio and other vaccines in the North-East still lags far behind the national average. The $125 million additional financing for polio has two components.

  • The first component provides $60 million for  Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) and other operational requirements of polio eradication activities. UNICEF will receive $50 million to procure OPV. The additional US$10 million will be used by UNICEF or WHO for a range of activities where funding gaps may be identified, including activities for Immunization Plus Days.
  • The second component ($65 million) will help finance routine immunization. The inclusion of a component on routine immunization stems from the fact that it has been shown to be essential for interrupting the transmission of wild polio and thereby completing polio eradication, while also being a critical aspect of improving child and maternal health.

The program document for the additional polio financing is available here.

The difficulties in eradicating polio in the North-East are related in part to insecurity and a broader lack of services and development opportunities. The Boko Haram insurgency has deeply affected the states of Borno, Yobe, Adamawa, Taraba, Bauchi and Gombe, with negative impacts on an estimated 15 million people.

As per the press release for the additional financing package for the North-East, the other components of the package include:

  • $75 million for the Nigeria Community and Social Development Project which provides immediate basic social infrastructure and psychosocial support to communities most affected by displacement;
  • $100 million for the Youth Employment and Social Support Operation to provide youth, women and the unemployed (especially internally displaced persons, returnees and persons with disabilities resulting from the crisis) with labor-intensive work and skills development opportunities. Cash transfers will also be provided to displaced families and individuals as they return voluntarily and safely to and settle in their old or new communities.
  • $50 million for the Third Fadama Development Project that  addresses the emergency needs of farmers by improving access to irrigation and drainage services, delivery of agricultural inputs, and contributing to the restoration of livelihoods in conflict-affected households with a focus on women and youth.
  • $100 million for the State Education Program Investment Project that supports the return to teaching and learning through financial incentives for teachers who have completed psycho-social training, and provide grants to schools to address their needs as identified by school-based management committees.
  • $125 million for the National State Health Investment Project (plus $20 million from the Global Financing Facility) that will help to reestablish health services with a focus on maternal, newborn and child health, nutrition, psycho-social support and mental health. In communities in which health facilities have been destroyed, mobile clinics will be deployed to provide care.

As Rachid Benmessaoud, the World Bank Country Director for Nigeria explained it,  “The needs are staggering. Millions of people have lost their livelihoods, schools and health facilities have been destroyed, and the psychosocial impact of the crisis must also be addressed. To help create economic opportunities for the most vulnerable, we have identified a set of initiatives that will have a quick and tangible impact on the population in four priority areas: agriculture, education, health and social protection.

The World Bank press release on which this blog post is based is available here together with links to other related resources.

Moving from humiliation and exclusion to participation: Ending poverty in all its forms

Today, October 17, is the United Nations’ World Day for Overcoming Poverty. The origin of the day lies in the work of the late Father Joseph Wresinski, the founder of the International Movement ATD Fourth World. Wresinski had a profound influence on my life. To honor his legacy, please allow me to share below the message of the International Committee for October 17.

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The worst thing about living in extreme poverty is the contempt, that they treat you like you are worthless, that they look at you with disgust and fear and that they even treat you like an enemy. We and our children experience this every day, and it hurts us, humiliates us and makes us live in fear and shame.”

These are the moving words of an activist describing the humiliation and exclusion experienced by her and many other people who live in poverty.

Her words remind us that humiliation and exclusion is pervasive among the homeless and people living in poverty. When people are treated in a derogatory or demeaning manner, they experience feelings of lowered self-worth or self-esteem or even a loss of pride.

Humiliation experienced by people living in poverty unfairly defines them as the weaker or less important party in an unequal power relationship. They feel humiliated when they feel they are forced to ‘beg’ for help from officials who are providing social assistance, or they have to endure rude, demeaning, condescending or judgmental behavior on the part of others.

Often persons who feel humiliated are ashamed to appear in public and, therefore, are socially excluded and unable to freely participate in the economic, social, cultural and political life of their community.

The theme of the International Day for the Eradication of Poverty this year is “Moving from humiliation and exclusion to participation: Ending poverty in all its forms” and it reminds us that persistent poverty is a denial of human rights and that its eradication takes more than just improving the material well-being of people living in poverty.

Of course, improving the material well-being of people should form the foundation of our efforts to end poverty and, in particular, extreme poverty everywhere.

However, we must not forget that poverty is invariably closely intertwined with humiliation and exclusion. So long as people living in poverty continue to suffer discrimination, humiliation and exclusion, their fundamental human rights will continue to be abused and their access to basic needs will be limited.

We are encouraged by the declaration in the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda “to end poverty in all its forms everywhere” because it explicitly recognizes that people living in poverty suffer from more than just a lack of income. When the pledge by the United Nations that “no one will be left behind” is effectively implemented it can create the conditions for building peaceful and inclusive societies.

This requires transformational change that promotes society-wide respect and appreciation for the important and valuable social, economic, cultural and political contributions of people living in poverty.

This means transformational change that will ensure the full and effective participation of people living in poverty, particularly in the decisions that affect their lives and communities.

Together we can end humiliation and exclusion.

Together we can end poverty everywhere.

Donald Lee

President, International Committee for October 17

Improving Immunization and Fighting Polio in Pakistan

Polio remains endemic in only two countries: Afghanistan and Pakistan. Apart from polio campaigns, broader support for immunization is essential to eradicate polio. Two weeks ago (on April 21, 2016), the World Bank approved an International Development Association (IDA) credit of $50 million to increase the availability of vaccines for infectious diseases, including polio, for children under two years of age in Pakistan.  Additional funding to the amount of $80 million is provided by a World Bank administered multi-donor trust fund, Gavi – the Vaccine Alliance, and the United States Agency for International Development. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation also participates through a buy-down mechanism (on what a buy-down amounts to, click here). Below is information on the project reproduced from the World Bank’s website (the original link for the information is here).

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The National Immunization Support Project (NISP) is supporting the country’s Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) that aims to immunize all children against eight vaccine preventable diseases:  tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, hepatitis B, haemophilus influenza type b (Hib), and measles. Strengthening EPI will also support Pakistan’s access to newer vaccines which are either in the process of roll out (pneumococcal vaccine) or under planning (rotavirus vaccine).

The Project is also receiving additional support of $80 million grant from a World Bank administered multi-donor trust fund, Gavi – the Vaccine Alliance, and the United States Agency for International Development. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is also supporting the project through an innovative partial conversion of the IDA credit into a grant upon successful achievement of project objectives.

“Pakistan is grappling with the public health emergency of polio virus transmission. Ensuring strong routine immunization services is the first essential pillar in polio eradication”, says Illango Patchamuthu, World Bank Country Director for Pakistan. “The World Bank and other development partners are working with the Government of Pakistan to strengthen routine immunization services at the critical endgame stage of polio eradication, particularly as Pakistan introduces injectable polio vaccine into its routine schedule”.

The project will incentivize provincial government capacity for rigorous monitoring and effective implementation of its program, including strengthened vaccine logistics, and deploying and expanding qualified technical and managerial personnel.

“Pakistan’s performance in maternal and child health remains weak and inadequate immunization coverage is a major challenge. Childhood immunization against vaccine preventable diseases can help in significant reductions in disability and death”, says Robert Oelrichs, World Bank Task Team Leader of the Project. “The project will establish linkages of the federal and provincial EPI cells with private sector health providers and health-related civil society organizations (CSOs) working in low coverage catchment areas – especially urban slums.”

Children under two years of age in Pakistan are the main beneficiaries of NISP – particularly children belonging to the poorest households in which immunization coverage is lowest. In addition, all children will benefit from strengthened polio and measles interventions.

The credit is financed by IDA, the World Bank’s fund for the poor, with a maturity of 25 years, including a grace period of 5 years.