Ending Child Marriage, Promoting Girls’ Education

Occasionally, I reproduce on this blog posts that I published elsewhere. As basic education is one of the areas of focus of  the Rotary Foundation, some of you may be interested in a study on the economic impacts of child marriage, including on girls’ education, that I recently completed at the World Bank. The study was funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Children’s Investment Fund Foundation, and the Global Partnership for Education, and done in partnership with the International Center for Research on Women. A post on the relationship between child marriage and girls’ education that appeared yesterday on the blog of the Global Partnership for Education is reproduced below together with links to related publications (picture below credited to the World Bank).

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Children in a temporary school in Goucheme Niger,  © Stephan Gladieu / World Bank

Post published with the Global Partnership for Education (GPE) on June 29, 2017:

Every day, 41,000 girls marry before they are 18 years old. That’s 15 million girls every year. What are the economic impacts and costs of child marriage, and how does the practice relate to girls’ educational attainment?

A new study on the economic impacts of child marriage by the World Bank and the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) suggests that the negative impacts of child marriage on a wide range of development outcomes are large. This is the case not only for child brides, but also for their children and for societies overall. The study benefited from support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Children’s Investment Fund Foundation, and the Global Partnership for Education.

Child marriage leads to population growth and entrenched poverty

Detailed analysis was carried for 15 countries, with extrapolations done for some of the impacts and costs of child marriage for more than 100 developing countries. Globally, between now and 2030, child marriage is expected to cost the equivalent of trillions of dollars to populations in the developing world.

The largest impacts in terms of economic costs are through fertility and population growth. Child marriage leads girls to have children earlier and more children over their lifetime. This in turns reduces the ability of households to meet their basic needs, and thereby contributes to poverty. Ending child marriage would generate large welfare benefits through a reduction in population growth, helping to usher in the demographic dividend.

Early marriage makes completing education almost impossible for girls

The relationship between child marriage and educational attainment for girls is also strong. In most developing countries, it is extremely difficult for girls to remain in school once they get married.

As a result, child marriage reduces the likelihood that girls will complete their secondary education. This emerges clearly from questions asked to parents in household surveys as to why their daughters dropped out of school. Marriage is often one of the main, if not the main reason, that adolescent girls drop out of school.

A similar conclusion is reached when modelling the relationship between child marriage and educational attainment econometrically. The effects are large. Every year that a girl marries early (i.e., before 18) is associated with a reduction in the likelihood of completing secondary school of typically four to 10 percentage points, depending on the country or region. This leads to lower earnings for child brides in adulthood since a lack of education prevents them from getting good jobs. In addition, child marriage also reduces education prospects for the children of child brides by curtailing their mother’s education.

The good news is that conversely, keeping girls in school is one of the best ways to delay marriage. This finding emerges from the literature on interventions that have proven successful in delaying the age at first marriage. It also emerges from the empirical estimations conducted for the study. The estimates suggest that across the 15 countries for which the empirical work was carried, each year of additional secondary education reduces the likelihood for girls of marrying as a child and of having a first child before the age of 18 by five to six percentage points on average.

Child marriage must end

The study provides a clear economic rationale for ending child marriage. Child marriage is not only a social issue with potentially dramatic consequences for child brides and their children. It is also an economic issue that affects the ability of countries to grow and reduce poverty. The study also suggests how ending child marriage can be done: by keeping girls in school.

What’s next? With support from GPE, two additional studies are being prepared by the World Bank team. The first study will estimate the benefits from investments in girls’ education using an approach similar to that used for the estimation of the economic costs of child marriage.

The second study will look more broadly at the role that human capital plays in the changing Wealth of Nations. Preliminary findings suggest that human capital is the largest component of the Wealth of Nations, ahead of produced and natural capital.

Together, it is hoped that these three studies on (1) the economic impacts of child marriage, (2) the benefits of investments in girls’ education, and (3) human capital and the Wealth of Nations will help advocate for increased investments in education.

For more information:

Global Report

Project brief on educational attainment

Infographic

All publications on the costs of child marriage

Going to Atlanta? Learn about Promoting Access to College for Disadvantaged Youths

The Rotary International Convention in Atlanta is just two weeks away. It promises to be especially well attended by Rotarians from all over the world.

Atlanta, Georgia, USA

If you are going, I hope that we’ll find a way to meet there. My club (Rotary Club of Capitol Hill) will have a booth in the House of Friendship, so I’ll be there regularly. I will also help out for a few breakout sessions and I plan to attend meetings of several Rotarian Action Groups, including the meetings of the Rotarian Action Group for Population and Development (RFPD) and the Rotarian Action Group for Microfinance and Community Development (RAGM).

One breakout session that I hope you will be able to attend promises to be interesting, even if I say so myself. It is scheduled for Monday June 12 around lunch time and will focus on “Promoting Access to College for Disadvantaged Youths”. We will have two great speakers – Eric Goldstein and Martha Kanter, with your dedicated Rotarian Economist as moderator.

Eric Goldstein will talk about how to prepare students for college. He runs One World Education, a great nonprofit that works in public and charter schools in Washington, DC, to prepare students to conduct good research, write convincing  essays, and present their arguments orally. Evaluations of the program show it works, and Eric is a great speaker who is passionate about making the classroom more interactive so that students may lean better.

Martha Kanter was under secretary of education under President Obama. She oversaw policies, programs and activities related to post-secondary education, adult and career-technical education, federal student aid, and six White House Initiatives. Currently, she runs the College Education promise campaigns. She will talk about ways to make college affordable including through scholarships. She is also a great speaker who came a few months ago to talk about her passion for ensuring that all youth can go to college at our Rotary club.

Looking forward to meeting many of you in Atlanta!

Using our Expertise and Networks to Provide Training for Local Nonprofits

A great way for Rotary clubs to serve their community is to rely on their members’ expertise and networks to provide training for local nonprofits in areas where they need support. As part of my club’s pro bono initiative, we organized in February 2017 two half day training events for local nonprofits on (1) monitoring and evaluation and (2) communications. This post explains what we did, and why it worked.

  

In September 2016, we applied to the Capitol Hill Community Foundation for a grant to help us organize training events for local nonprofits. We received the grant in November and organized the training events in February. The events focused on 1) essentials of monitoring, evaluation, and cost-benefit analysis for nonprofits; and 2) essentials of communications, from websites to social media and power point presentations.  The training workshops were held at the main community center for our neighborhood in Washington, DC. The focus on monitoring, evaluation, and cost-benefit analysis as well as on communications stemmed from the fact that when interacting with local nonprofits, there appeared to be great demand for support in those areas.

In order to organize the training events, we relied on the expertise of members of our club as well as friends and colleagues from organizations based in Washington, DC. Instructors for the two training workshops included staff from the Center for Nonprofit Advancement, the Communication Center, Tanzen, the Urban Alliance, and the World Bank.  In addition, between the events (one workshop in the morning and the other the same day during the afternoon), we provided a lunch to participants of both workshops with a keynote address from the CEO of Grameen Foundation, a well-known organization providing micro-credit globally.

In order to promote the training events, we designed posters/fliers and shared them widely to potential participants using a variety of networks. As an example, we contacted local foundations so that they could share the information with their grantees. Registration was brisk, and we had to close registrations when we reached 150 participants. On the day itself, about 90 people attended, which was good for us given that our room had a capacity of 90. Note that when training events are free some people who register may not come – and we had factored this in. We also had competition from a gorgeous and sunny day. Many participants attended for the whole day, but some came for just one of the two training events.

Because we had great speakers who knew their subject matter well and were engaging as well as practical in their presentations, evaluations of the two events by participants were very encouraging. As shown in the table below, on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree), participants on average rated all dimensions of the training highly. This initiative overall was a great success for our club in terms of providing a valuable service to the community, and gaining in visibility as well. I encourage you to consider organizing similar events in your community.

Evaluation of the two training events by participants – scale from 1 to 5

M&E Comms
The training was well organized. 4.71 4.79
The topics covered were relevant. 4.65 4.68
Participation/interaction were encouraged. 4.44 4.58
The content was easy to follow. 4.50 4.89
The trainers were knowledgeable about the topics. 4.79 4.89
The trainers were well prepared. 4.74 4.89
The time allotted was sufficient for what was covered. 4.65 4.79
The lunch as well as the facilities were adequate. 4.56 4.68
This training experience will be useful to me. 4.68 4.84
I will come again if another training is organized. 4.62 4.79

I will recommend this type of training to others.

4.68 4.84

 

Free ebooks 4 and 5 – Rotary foundations and grants

Did you know that apart from the Rotary Foundation of Rotary International, there are close to 4,000 local Rotary foundations in the United States alone? Two new free ebooks on Rotary foundations and grants are now available in the Rotarian Economist Short Books series.  The first book provides an introduction to Rotary foundations and grants for applicants as well as Rotarians. The second book provides a directory of Rotary foundations in the United States by state and by city within each state. To download your free copy, please go here.

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Free ebook 3: What Does Service Mean in Rotary? Simple Stories of Inspiring Rotarians

The third free ebook in the Rotarian Economist Short Books series has been released. Rotary’s motto is “Service above Self.” What does this mean in practice? The book answers this question by providing examples of the work that Rotarians do. The book also explains Rotary’s “avenues of service.” The hope is that through simple stories of Rotarians at work, readers – including new Rotarians – will better understand what service in Rotary is about, and be inspired for their own volunteer work. To download your free copy, please go here.

Technical note: due to the Smashwords website features, I am listed as first author, but the correct order of the authors is the order provided in the downloadable files.

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Free ebook 2 – Partner, Innovate, Evaluate: Increasing Rotary’s Impact

The second ebook in the Rotarian Economist Short Books Series has been published. Partnerships, innovation, and evaluation can increase the quality, scope, and reach of Rotary’s service work in communities. The book suggests with case studies how this can be done. All books in the series are free and available here in multiple formats.  Please share this link widely with others for them to be able to benefit from this resource. And if you like the books in the series, please consider writing a quick review at Smashwords!

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Free ebook 1 – Double Your Membership In Six Months: 10 Lessons from a Rotary Club Pilot

The first ebook in the Rotarian Economist Short Books Series has just been published. It provides 10 simple lessons for Rotary clubs to grow. The book is based on the success of the Rotary Club of Capitol Hill in doubling its membership in six months. The book is free and available here in multiple formats.  Please share this link widely for others to benefit from this resource. And if you like the book, please consider writing a quick review!

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