by Quentin Wodon
Following up on the posts of yesterday and the day before, today’s post is about the “how” of early childhood development (ECD). This is the question asked in the third and last module of the World Bank’s new online course on ECD.
The first question – the “why” of ECD – focused on individual child-level outcomes: how children grow and develop, the powerful positive impact that ECD interventions can have for them, the high economic returns from such interventions, and the risks incurred without them. Next, with the “what matters” question, we took a step back and looked at ECD systems as a whole at the country level – are country policies and programs structured in such a way that they can deliver ECD interventions for young children. The third question is about “how”. The “how” question looks at what lies in between country systems and ECD interventions at the child level. It deals with how ECD program and policies can be designed, implement, and evaluated.
How to implement ECD interventions is again a fairly broad area of inquiry. The World Bank course focuses on six different topics related to the “how” question. Each is briefly discussed in this post. As before, the hope is that together with the two previous posts, this post will enable readers to decide whether it would be worthwhile for them to actually take the online course, and if they do not, to at least provide them with a few useful resources on ECD.
The first topic on the “how” of ECD focuses on what the World Bank has done in this field in terms of support to governments. This is after all a World Bank course! Key findings from a 12-year review of the World Bank’s experience with ECD projects are provided. The good news is that lending and grants as well as analytical work for ECD has increased dramatically in the last few years after a number of policy document recognized the importance of investments in ECD. Examples of projects implemented in countries such as Mexico, Eritrea, and Indonesia are also provided.
The second topic considers the issue of inter-sectoral coordination between agencies and Ministries, as well as between the wide range of providers of ECD services. It discusses what a comprehensive EDC system could look like and how coordination helps in achieving synergies between interventions as well as cost savings though the combination of interventions in service delivery. Again, examples of coordination mechanisms from Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean are provided.
The third topic is devoted to ECD diagnostics, whether for countries or projects. The topic discusses the inputs that are needed for ECD interventions, and how such interventions can be funded. It reviews some of the broad indicators (including those related to the Millennium Development Goals) that have been used to monitor ECD outcomes at the country level, as well as some of the more detailed child assessment tools that can be used for more detailed evaluations, including by servicer providers such as NGOs.
These assessment tools are then described in more details in the fourth topic in order to help practitioners chose the right type of child assessment to measure whether they are indeed achieving the outcomes that they are trying to achieve. The issue of how to adapt such assessment tools to local conditions – an assessment tool for the United States may not work in Bolivia – is also discussed. The topic finally presents briefly the area of focus of on-going impact evaluations being implemented by the World Bank, in part using these tools, in ten countries in Africa, Latin America, East Asia, and South Asia.
The fifth topic looks in more details at the cost of ECD interventions and their financing. The topic shows how to estimate the overall cost of specific interventions, as well as the cost per beneficiary. While some costs may be borne by families, many of the costs should be paid for by governments and/or other funders, especially when programs targeted low-income beneficiaries. Guidelines as to how much countries should invest in ECD programs are provided and examples of combinations of funding sources, allocation mechanisms, and coverage rates for different types of ECD interventions from Columbia, Denmark, and Indonesia are documented.
The sixth and last topic considers issues related to project design, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. The discussion is based in part on a case study for a large project implemented by the World Bank in Indonesia. After providing a snapshot of the project, the concepts of results chain and results framework are introduced to link inputs with outputs and intermediate as well as final outcomes. While the case study is based on a large project, the concepts presented also apply to smaller initiatives led by NGOs and other service providers.
That’s it for the structure of the course! As mentioned in the first post of this series, the course takes about four to five hours to complete. The course was initially designed for World Bank task team leaders in education, health, and social protection who are involved in the design and implementation of ECD projects or in policy dialogue on ECD with governments and other organizations. While these staffs have broad-based program and project-related responsibilities, they may not be familiar with some more detailed aspects of ECD interventions and policies. The e-learning course provides them with a resource to broaden their knowledge base.
But it is also hoped that the course, which is available free of charge, should be of interest to policy makers in countries as well as staffs from donor and other agencies, including non-governmental organizations. The course may also be of interest to undergraduate and graduate university students. The hope is that many of you, the readers, will take the course to learn more about this fascinating and very important topic.
Note: This series of three posts is based on the e-learning course mentioned above, which was developed by a World Bank team comprising of Amina Denboba, Monica McLin, Michelle Neuman, Rebecca Kraft Sayre, Yidan Wang, and the author.